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HomeTopics 1Application SecurityTwo Years in the Shadows: Chinese Hackers Exploited VMware Flaw, Putting Businesses...

Two Years in the Shadows: Chinese Hackers Exploited VMware Flaw, Putting Businesses at Risk


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The vulnerability lurked for two years, invisible and deadly.

The vulnerability lurked for two years, invisible and deadly. A critical zero-day flaw in VMware ESXi servers, exploited by China-nexus cyber espionage group UNC3886, left businesses and organizations worldwide exposed to potential data breaches, information theft, and operational disruptions. This incident underscores the chilling reality of persistent cyber threats and the need for robust security measures across the digital landscape.

What Happened?

The vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2023-34048, allowed attackers to gain privileged access to the vCenter Server, the central management platform for VMware ESXi virtual machines. This opened the door for UNC3886 to:

  • Enumerate all ESXi hosts and virtual machines: Mapping the internal network and identifying valuable targets.
  • Install backdoors: Providing persistent access for future attacks and exfiltration of sensitive data.
  • Deploy malware: Disrupting operations, stealing information, and potentially causing widespread damage.

Real-World Example:

Imagine a hospital running its critical patient databases and medical equipment on VMware ESXi servers. The unpatched vulnerability gives UNC3886 access to the network. They steal patient records, disable medical equipment, and disrupt the hospital’s operations, putting lives at risk.

Two Years of Undetected Threat:

The most alarming aspect of this incident is the two-year window during which UNC3886 exploited the vulnerability before it was patched. This highlights the importance of:

  • Proactive Patching: Regularly update software and firmware to the latest versions to patch vulnerabilities as soon as they are discovered.
  • Threat Intelligence: Stay informed about emerging threats and vulnerabilities through reliable sources like CISA and security vendors.
  • Layered Security: Implement a multi-layered security approach with firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and endpoint protection to prevent and detect attacks.

Protecting Your Systems: 10 Steps to Secure Your VMware Environment

  1. Patch Immediately: Patch vCenter Server and ESXi hosts to the latest version (Patch ESXi 7.0 Update 3j, ESXi 6.7 Update 3l, ESXi 6.5 Update 3n) immediately.
  2. Disable Unused Services: Minimize your attack surface by disabling unnecessary services and protocols on vCenter Server and ESXi hosts.
  3. Review User Privileges: Implement least privilege access control to limit user permissions and minimize potential damage in case of a breach.
  4. Monitor Activity: Monitor vCenter Server and ESXi host logs for suspicious activity and investigate any anomalies promptly.
  5. Use Strong Passwords: Implement strong and unique passwords for vCenter Server and ESXi administrator accounts.
  6. Segment Your Network: Segment your network to isolate critical systems and prevent lateral movement of attackers.
  7. Backup Regularly: Regularly back up your data to ensure you can recover quickly in case of an attack.
  8. Test Your Defenses: Regularly test your security controls and incident response plans to identify and address vulnerabilities.
  9. Report Suspicious Activity: Report any suspicious activity to your IT security team and relevant authorities.
  10. Stay Informed: Keep yourself updated on cybersecurity news and best practices to protect your VMware environment from future threats.

The Time to Act is Now:

The VMware zero-day exploit serves as a stark reminder that cyber threats are constantly evolving and organizations need to be vigilant. By taking proactive steps, implementing robust security measures, and staying informed, we can create a more secure digital world for everyone. Let’s not wait for another two years in the shadows – patch now and secure your systems against potential harm.


The two-year window of exploitation for the VMware zero-day flaw reminds us that cyber threats are a persistent and silent foe. While this particular vulnerability has been patched, countless others lurk unseen in the digital shadows. To avoid becoming the next casualty, we must shift from reactive to proactive security. Patching diligently, embracing layered security solutions, and fostering a culture of cybersecurity awareness are essential steps in this fight.

Let this incident serve as a wake-up call. Don’t wait for another two years in the shadows – take action today. Secure your systems, empower your teams, and stay vigilant. Only by working together can we build a resilient digital landscape where businesses and individuals alike can thrive without fear of lurking vulnerabilities. Remember, cybersecurity is not a destination; it’s a continuous journey of vigilance and action. So, start your journey today and make every step a stride towards a secure and connected future.

Ouaissou DEMBELE
Ouaissou DEMBELEhttps://cybercory.com
Ouaissou DEMBELE is an accomplished cybersecurity professional and the Editor-In-Chief of cybercory.com. He has over 10 years of experience in the field, with a particular focus on Ethical Hacking, Data Security & GRC. Currently, Ouaissou serves as the Co-founder & Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) at Saintynet, a leading provider of IT solutions and services. In this role, he is responsible for managing the company's cybersecurity strategy, ensuring compliance with relevant regulations, and identifying and mitigating potential threats, as well as helping the company customers for better & long term cybersecurity strategy. Prior to his work at Saintynet, Ouaissou held various positions in the IT industry, including as a consultant. He has also served as a speaker and trainer at industry conferences and events, sharing his expertise and insights with fellow professionals. Ouaissou holds a number of certifications in cybersecurity, including the Cisco Certified Network Professional - Security (CCNP Security) and the Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), ITIL. With his wealth of experience and knowledge, Ouaissou is a valuable member of the cybercory team and a trusted advisor to clients seeking to enhance their cybersecurity posture.


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